- Open Access
Occurrence and biological characteristics of glass eels of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica at the Cagayan River of Luzon Island, Philippines in 2009
© Yoshinaga et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 11 August 2013
- Accepted: 13 February 2014
- Published: 24 February 2014
The Japanese eel Anguilla japonica spawns in the North Equatorial Current in the Philippine Sea and their larvae are transported to their freshwater growth habitats in East Asia. Here we report the occurrence and biological characteristics of glass eels of A. japonica that were collected on northern Luzon Island of the Philippines, the southern limit of the distribution range of this species. Anguillid glass eels recruiting to the Cagayan River estuary in January and February 2009 were collected and identified using their morphological and genetic characteristics.
Among the 767 specimens, 52 glass eels collected in January were found to be A. japonica, while the remaining were tropical anguillid species. Age estimation revealed that the glass eels of A. japonica from northern Luzon Island were 147.2 ± 21.3 days old (mean ± sd) with a range between 111 and 185. The hatch dates of these A. japonica suggested that they were derived from at least four spawning events in the 2008 spawning season.
Despite the increasing demand on the glass eels for aquaculture in the area where the five anguillid species simultaneously recruit, abundance of each species is yet unknown and investigations will be important for the protection of stock of the anguillids.
- Anguilla japonica
- Cagayan River
- Japanese eel
The Japanese eel Anguilla japonica has been one of the most valuable fishery resources in East Asian countries. The aquaculture of these eels solely depends on the glass eels harvested in estuaries because the artificial production techniques for anguillid eels have not yet been established at a commercial scale. The recruitment of the glass eels of A. japonica, however, has been decreasing in the last few decades, particularly since 2009 (Aoyama et al. 2012). In addition to the overexploitation of the glass eels, ocean-atmospheric changes have been proposed as one of the major reasons for the recent decline of A. japonica (Kim et al. 2007; Miller et al. 2009; Zenimoto et al. 2009).
The spawning site of A. japonica has recently been discovered in waters along the southern West Mariana Ridge (Tsukamoto 2006; Tsukamoto et al. 2011). The larvae of A. japonica, called leptocephali, are transferred by two connecting ocean currents in the western North Pacific, by firstly being transported westward from the spawning site by the North Equatorial Current and then by transferring to the Kuroshio near the eastern side of the Philippines that disperses them throughout their growth habitats in Taiwan, China, South Korea, and Japan (Zenimoto et al. 2009; Shinoda et al. 2011). The leptocephali that fail to transfer into the Kuroshio can be entrained into the Mindanao Current that transports them southward around southern Philippines and into the Celebes Sea of northern Indonesia and Malaysia where A. japonica has been rarely reported. It is known that a slight latitudinal shift of the spawning sites and the point of bifurcation of the two currents increases the amount of leptocephali transported southward and subsequently decreases their recruitment success in East Asia (Kimura et al. 2001; Kim et al. 2007; Zenimoto et al. 2009).
It is also possible that the recruitment patterns of A. japonica might have changed, at least, in the last recent years. A monthly monitoring for the recruitment of the glass eels of A. japonica since November 2009 observed that the recruitment peak at the Sagami River estuary in Japan occurred in early summer in both 2010 and 2011 (Aoyama et al. 2012). The recruitment peak of A. japonica has long been considered to be between late autumn and early spring, and the unusual recruitment in early summer implies that an ecological response to a global change of oceanic environment may have occurred (Aoyama et al. 2012). Ecological impacts of global climate changes have been reported to cause shifts of species distribution ranges and changes in the life history parameters of numerous terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Parmesan 2006).
One place where changes in the distribution and recruitment patterns of A. japonica may be evident is at the edge of its range. Tabeta et al. (1976) investigated the anguillid glass eels that recruited to the Cagayan River at the northern tip of Luzon Island of the Philippines, the southern limit of the distribution range of A. japonica. They identified a very small number of A. japonica in January and February 1974 during the survey period of 1970 to 1974. Except for this record, however, there has been no scientific survey for the occurrence of A. japonica in the northern Philippines, and thus, the present status is unknown at the southern edge of the species range. In this study, accordingly, we collected glass eels at the same place where the previous study (Tabeta et al. 1976) had identified the recruitment of A. japonica in the 1970s and carried out species identification to verify the occurrence of this species on northern Luzon Island.
Glass eels of four anguillid species of the Pacific subspecies - the Indonesian short-finned eel Anguilla bicolor pacifica, the Indonesian mottled eel Anguilla celebesensis, the Japanese eel A. japonica, and the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata - had been reported to recruit to the Cagayan River (Tabeta et al. 1976), but the Luzon mottled eel Anguilla luzonensis has recently been described from a branch of this river system (Watanabe et al. 2009). The A. celebesensis specimens that were previously reported from the Cagayan River were likely erroneously identified as that species due to their morphological similarity with A. luzonensis that was not known to exist at that time (Tabeta et al. 1976; Watanabe et al. 2009), but the total number of anguillid species recruiting to the northern Luzon Island has not yet been investigated enough. Accordingly, in this study, we assumed that five species of anguillid glass eels could occur at the Cagayan River estuary.
The glass eels that were collected were first divided into two groups by measuring their total length (TL) and the length between the verticals through the anus and origin of the dorsal fin (ano-dorsal length, ADL) to classify the short-fin (A. bicolor) and long-fin species (A. celebesensis, A. japonica, A. luzonensis, A. marmorata) according to previous studies (Ege 1939; Tabeta et al. 1976; Watanabe 2003; Leander et al. 2012). The long-fin species were further classified by the presence/absence of pigmentation on the tail tip: well-developed pigment species (tropical species of A. celebesensis, A. luzonensis, A. marmorata) and pigment-absent species (temperate species of A. japonica) according to Tabeta et al. (1976).
Genetic species identification
The genetic species identification was conducted to verify the morphological screening for all the glass eels classified to be A. japonica (n = 52) according to Yoshinaga et al. (2011). A subsample of the other long-fin specimens (n = 32) was also genetically identified. Briefly, a small portion of tissue was dissected from the abdomen and used for the DNA extraction by a DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Venlo, Netherlands). A partial fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S ribosome gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the DNA nucleotide sequences were determined for the 3′-end. The species identification was then carried out by a BLAST search.
To estimate the ages at recruitment for the glass eels of A. japonica, sagittal otoliths were extracted and embedded in an epoxy resin (Epofix, Struers, Westlake, OH, USA) (n = 12). The otoliths were ground to expose the core with a diamond cup wheel (Discoplan-TS, Struers) and then polished with colloidal silica suspension (OP-S suspension, Struers) on a polishing wheel (LaboPol-35 equipped with LaboForce-Mi, Struers). Subsequently, the otoliths were etched with 50 mM hydrochloric acid and coated with platinum-palladium for the observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM, S-4800, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). The SEM photographs were taken at various magnifications of × 300 to × 2,500 and were used to count the number of daily increment rings. The widths of each ring were also measured to clarify the early life stages according to previous studies (Otake et al. 1994; Arai et al. 1997). Linear regression analysis was performed by a StatPlus:mac version 2009 (AnalystSoft Inc., Vancouver, Canada).
The glass eels collected in January 2009 consisted of both short-fin and long-fin species (n = 31 and 278, respectively). The short-fin specimens were considered to be A. bicolor pacifica because it is the only short-finned eel ever observed in the Cagayan River (Tabeta et al. 1976) or that is present in the western North Pacific (Ege 1939; Watanabe 2003). Subsequently, based on the development of the pigmentation on the tail tip, the long-fin species were divided into the pigment-present and pigment-absent groups (n = 226 and 52, respectively). The subsample of the pigmented group (n = 32) was genetically identified and found to include A. luzonensis (n = 4), A. marmorata (n = 27), and A. celebesensis (n = 1). The long-fin species without pigmentation were genetically verified to be A. japonica (n = 52). In contrast, in February 2009, there were no A. japonica in the sample and the specimens consisted of the short-fin and long-fin species with the pigmentation (n = 261 and 197, respectively).
Biological characteristics of A. japonica glass eels at Cagayan River estuary
The TL of the glass eels of A. japonica collected in January 2009 at the Cagayan River was 51.9 ± 2.2 mm (47.2 to 56.1; n = 50). Two specimens were omitted from the morphological measurements due to their damaged body. All the specimens were at the pigmentation stage of VA, corresponding to the newly metamorphosed glass eel (Fukuda et al. 2013).
Age and estimated hatch date of glass eels of Anguilla japonica in January 2009
Early life stages (days)
Age at the recruitment (days)
26 Jan 2009
25 Jul 2008
26 Jan 2009
6 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
20 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
22 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
25 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
27 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
31 Aug 2008
26 Jan 2009
6 Sep 2008
26 Jan 2009
12 Sep 2008
26 Jan 2009
17 Sep 2008
26 Jan 2009
30 Sep 2008
26 Jan 2009
7 Oct 2008
The hatching dates of A. japonica were back-calculated using their collection dates and ages at the recruitment (Table 1). The earliest and latest were on 25 July and 7 October 2008, respectively. The 12 specimens hatched in July (n = 1), August (n = 6), September (n = 4), and October (n = 1) in 2008, respectively.
A. japonica in northern Luzon Island
A. japonica distributes widely in the northern temperate or subtropical regions along the margins of the western North Pacific, such as in Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, and as far south as the northern tip of the Luzon Island of the Philippines (Figure 1a). However, one genetically identified leptocephalus of A. japonica has been collected in the Celebes Sea (5.5° N, 121.5° E) in November 2002, which had been transported there by the Mindanao Current (Miller et al. 2009; Shinoda et al. 2011). Tsukamoto et al. (2011) suggested that the spawning sites of A. japonica have frequently shifted southward from around 15° N in the 1990s to 12° to 13° N in the 2000s (Figure 1a). Numerical simulations predict that the southward shift of the spawning sites precludes the leptocephali of A. japonica from transferring to the Kuroshio to disperse northward (Zenimoto et al. 2009). It can therefore be proposed that the recent climatic change might have caused the spawning sites of A. japonica to be frequently shifted southward, and subsequently, the glass eel recruitment along the Kuroshio decreased, while the numbers entering southern areas such as northern Luzon Island may have increased. Global atmospheric changes that have caused frequent El Niño events reduced precipitation in the tropical region (Chou et al. 2009). The salinity front that is a landmark to determine the spawning site of Japanese eels in the North Equatorial Current (Aoyama et al. 2014) then moved southward due to a reduction of the low-salinity water supply by rainfall to the ocean surface. More information from both oceanographic and ecological approaches is required to understand the fluctuations in the recruitment success in the western North Pacific, which directly influences the stocks of the important eel fishery resources.
Recruitment of anguillid glass eels in the Cagayan River
In the 1970s, Tabeta et al. (1976) described four species of the genus Anguilla from the Cagayan River, which were A. bicolor pacifica, A. celebesensis, A. japonica, and A. marmorata. However, from the upper reaches of the Cagayan River system, Watanabe et al. (2009) have recently described A. luzonensis that seemed to have been a cryptic species because of their morphological similarity with A. celebesensis. It is apparent that some glass eels identified morphologically to be A. celebesensis by Tabeta et al. (1976) may possibly be A. luzonensis. In this study, we clearly confirmed the occurrence of both A. celebesensis and A. luzonensis among the long-fin glass eels recruited to the Cagayan River using genetic identification. This shows that the Cagayan River is one of the most species-rich growth habitats for anguillid eels, having a total of 5 species among the 19 species/subspecies of the genus Anguilla. Among the five anguillid species occurring in the Cagayan River, A. bicolor pacifica and A. japonica can be distinguished by the species-specific fin position (% ADL/TL) and the pigmentation pattern on the tail tip (Figure 2a,c). However, the remaining three species of A. celebesensis, A. luzonensis, and A. marmorata overlap in their % ADL/TL values (Figure 2b) (Watanabe et al. 2009), and the development patterns of the pigmentation in these species have not yet been described in detail. Currently, only the molecular genetic technique is available to identify these tropical long-fin species, and further study on the species-specific morphological characteristics will be necessary to comprehensively clarify the species composition of the anguillid glass eels and yellow eels in the Cagayan River system.
The results of this study can stimulate future research to conduct a long-term monitoring for the occurrence of anguillid glass eels on northern Luzon Island in conjunction with oceanographic surveys to learn about their spawning ecology. Such studies will be important not only for understanding the ecology of the freshwater eels in the subtropical region, but also to provide useful information to conserve the stocks of the eels that have been drastically decreasing worldwide.
We thank Y Shibuta, Y Suzuki, and M Ishikawa of Kitasato University who helped in the otolith and genetic analyses of this study. Thanks are also due to Mr. B Ai and Dr. S Hagihara who supported the sample collection. We are grateful to Dr. MJ Miller and two anonymous reviewers for various useful comments and for improving the manuscript.
- Aoyama J, Shinoda A, Yoshinaga T, Tsukamoto K: Late arrival of the Japanese glass eel Anguilla japonica at the Sagami River estuary in recent consecutive two-year classes: ecology and socio-economic impacts. Fish Sci 2012, 78: 1195–1204. 10.1007/s12562-012-0544-yView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aoyama J, Watanabe S, Miller MJ, Mochioka N, Otake T, Yoshinaga T, Tsukamoto K: Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana ridge. PLOS ONE 2014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088759Google Scholar
- Arai T, Otake T, Tsukamoto K: Drastic changes in otolith microstructure and microchemistry accompanying the onset of metamorphosis in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica . Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1997, 16: 17–22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chou C, Huang L-F, Tu J-Y, Tseng L, Hsueh Y-C: El Niño impacts on precipitation in the western North Pacific–East Asian sector. J Clim 2009, 22: 2039–2057. 10.1175/2008JCLI2649.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ege V: A revision of the genus Anguilla Shaw: a systematic, phylogenetic and geographical study. Dana Rep 1939, 16: 1–256.Google Scholar
- Fukuda N, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Shinoda A, Tsukamoto K: Evaluation of the pigmentation stages and body proportions from the glass eel to yellow eel in Anguilla japonica . Fish Sci 2013, 79: 425–438. 10.1007/s12562-013-0621-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han YS: Temperature-dependent recruitment delay of the Japanese glass eel Anguilla japonica in East Asia. Mar Biol 2011, 158: 2349–2358. 10.1007/s00227-011-1739-yView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim H, Kimura S, Shinoda A, Kitagawa T, Sasai Y, Sasaki H: Effect of El Niño on migration and larval transport of the Japanese eel ( Anguilla japonica ). ICES J Mar Sci 2007, 64: 1387–1395. 10.1093/icesjms/fsm091View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kimura S, Inoue T, Sugimoto T: Fluctuation in the distribution of low-salinity water in the North Equatorial Current and its effect on the larval transport of the Japanese eel. Fish Oceanogr 2001, 10: 51–60. 10.1046/j.1365-2419.2001.00159.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leander NJ, Shen KN, Chen RT, Tzeng WN: Species composition and seasonal occurrence of recruiting glass eels ( Anguilla spp.) in the Hsiukuluan River, Eastern Taiwan. Zool Stud 2012, 51: 59–71.Google Scholar
- Miller MJ, Kimura S, Friedland KD, Knights B, Kim H, Jellyman DJ, Tsukamoto K: Review of ocean-atmospheric factors in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans influencing spawning and recruitment of anguillid eels. In Challenges for diadromous fishes in a dynamic global environment. Edited by: Haro A, Smith KL, Rulifson RA, Moffitt CM, Klauda RJ, Dadswell MJ, Cunjak RA, Cooper JE, Beal KL, Avery TS. Amer Fisheries Soc, Symposium 69, Bethesda Maryland; 2009:231–249.Google Scholar
- Otake T, Ishii T, Nakahara M, Nakamura R: Drastic changes in otolith strontium/calcium ratios in leptocephali and glass eels of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica . Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1994, 112: 189–193.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parmesan C: Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 2006, 37: 637–669. 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110100View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shinoda A, Aoyama J, Miller MJ, Otake T, Mochioka N, Watanabe S, Minegishi Y, Kuroki M, Yoshinaga T, Yokouchi K, Fukuda N, Sudo R, Hagihara S, Zenimoto K, Suzuki Y, Oya M, Inagaki T, Kimura S, Fukui A, Lee TW, Tsukamoto K: Evaluation of the larval distribution and migration of the Japanese eel in the western North Pacific. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 2011, 21: 591–611. 10.1007/s11160-010-9195-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tabeta O, Tanimoto T, Takai T: Seasonal occurrence of anguillid elvers in Cagayan River, Luzon Island, the Philippines. Bull Japan Soc Sci Fish 1976, 42: 424–426.Google Scholar
- Tsukamoto K: Spawning of eels near a seamount. Nature 2006, 439: 929. 10.1038/439929aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsukamoto K, Chow S, Otake T, Kurogi H, Mochioka N, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Kimura S, Watanabe S, Yoshinaga T, Shinoda A, Kuroki M, Oya M, Watanabe T, Hata K, Ijiri S, Kazeto Y, Nomura K, Tanaka H: Oceanic spawning ecology of freshwater eels in the western north Pacific. Nature Commun 2011. doi:10.1038/ncomms1174Google Scholar
- Watanabe S: Taxonomy of the freshwater eels, genus Anguilla Schrank, 1798. In Eel biology. Edited by: Aida K, Tsukamoto K, Yamauchi K. Springer, Tokyo; 2003:3–18.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe S, Aoyama J, Tsukamoto K: A new species of freshwater eel Anguilla luzonensis (Teleostei: Anguillidae) from Luzon Island of the Philippines. Fish Sci 2009, 75: 387–392. 10.1007/s12562-009-0087-zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshinaga T, Miller MJ, Yokouchi K, Otake T, Kimura S, Aoyama J, Watanabe S, Shinoda A, Oya M, Miyazaki S, Zenimoto K, Sudo R, Takahashi T, Ahn HJ, Manabe R, Hagihara S, Morioka H, Itakura H, Machida M, Ban K, Shiozaki M, Ai B, Tsukamoto K: Genetic identification and morphology of naturally spawned eggs of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica collected in the western North Pacific. Fish Sci 2011, 77: 983–992. 10.1007/s12562-011-0418-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zenimoto K, Kitagawa T, Miyazaki S, Sasai T, Sasaki H, Kimura S: The effects of seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic structure in the western Pacific North Equatorial Current on larval transport of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica . J Fish Biol 2009, 74: 1878–1890. 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02295.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.