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Table 1 Mean frequency of occurrence (F%) and percentage of hare stomachs containing a certain plant taxa ( n %)

From: Diet adaptability by a generalist herbivore: the case of brown hare in a Mediterranean agroecosystem

Species or group of species Dry season ( n= 26) Wet season ( n= 22) Total ( n= 48)
F% n% F% n% F% n%
Monocotyledons 36.34 100 50.57 100 42.86 100
 Grasses 32.38 100 49.52 100 40.24 100
  Winter grasses 17.31 84.62 43.44 100 29.29 91.67
  Summer grasses 6.63 61.54 0.12 18.18 3.65 41.67
 Cynodon dactylon 2.12 53.85 3.49 81.82 2.75 66.67
   Brachypodium sp. 3.02 15.38 1.18 9.09 2.18 12.50
   Setaria sp. 1.94 15.38    1.05 8.33
   Cynosurus echinatus 0.35 15.38 1.03 18.18 0.66 16.67
   Sorgum halepense 0.19 23.08    0.10 12.50
  Unidentified grasses 0.82 46.15 0.26 18.18 0.56 33.33
 Other monocotyledons 3.96 38.46 1.05 27.27 2.62 33.30
   Cyperus rotundus 2.67 7.69    1.45 4.17
   Allium roseum 0.48 23.08 0.95 36.36 0.69 29.16
  Unidentified monocotyledon 0.81 7.69 0.1 9.09 0.48 8.33
Dicotyledons 36.29 100 43.4 90.91 39.55 95.80
Medicago sp.    20.24 45.45 9.28 20.83
Convolvulus arvensis 5.27 46.15 7.96 36.36 6.50 41.67
Amaranthus sp. 9.30 46.15    5.04 25.00
Urospermum picroides 2.76 7.69 0.92 9.09 1.92 8.33
 Brassicaceae    2.77 36.36 1.27 16.67
Malva sp. 0.63 7.69 0.82 18.18 0.72 12.50
 Cichoriaceae 1.37 23.08    0.74 12.50
Sonhcus sp.    1.49 9.09 0.68 4.17
Solanum nigrum 0.66 3.84    0.36 4.17
Verbascum sp. 0.50 7.69 0.219 18.18 0.37  
Senecio vulgaris 0.33 3.84 1.05 27.27 0.66  
Trifolium sp. 0.33 7.69 0.05 9.09 0.20 8.33
Vicia sp. 0.08 7.69 0.14 9.09 0.11 8.33
Ornithopus compressus 0.22 7.69    0.12 4.17
Anthemis arvensis 0.16 7.69    0.09 4.17
Daucus carota    0.18 9.09 0.08 4.17
Calendula arvensis    0.10 4.54 0.05 4.17
Oxalis pes-caprae    0.06 4.54 0.03 4.17
 Unidentified dicotyledon 1 0.11 3.84 0.05 4.54 0.08 8.33
 Unidentified dicotyledon 2 6.74 15.38 0.28 18.18 3.78 16.67
 Unidentified dicotyledon 3 1.07 23.07    0.58 12.50
 Unidentified dicotyledon 4    0.96 4.54 0.44 4.17
 Unidentified dicotyledon 5 0.75 23.07 0.33 4.54 0.55 16.67
 Unidentified dicotyledons 6.01 76.92 5.78 90.91 5.90 83.33
Fruits, seeds, and barks 25.91 92.31 5.54 81.82 16.57 87.50
Pyrus amygdaliformis 4.56 15.38 1.72 18.18 3.26 16.67
Vitis vinifera 2.70 7.69    1.46 4.17
Olea europaea 0.27 7.69    0.15 4.17
 Unidentified dicotyledons 8.47 76.92 3.30 63.64 6.10 70.83
 Grasses 9.91 38.46    5.37 20.83
Unidentified 1.47 69.23 0.49 18.18 1.02 45.83
 Taxa number 29 27 36
 Mean ± SE of taxa number 7.07 ± 0.4 6.54 ± 0.54 6.83 ± 0.33
 H΄ 1.247 0.86 1.188
 Mean ± SE of H΄ 0.68 ± 0.023 0.56 ± 0.048 0.63 ± 0.027
 B 12.84 4.1 8.46
 Mean ± SE of B 3.76 ± 0.19 3.03 ± 0.31 3.42 ± 0.18
 BA 0.36 0.106 0.186
 Mean ± SE of BA 0.34 ± 0.017 0.27 ± 0.027 0.31 ± 0.016
 B΄ 0.177 0.076 -a
 Mean ± SE of B΄ 0.136 ± 0.032 0.114 ± 0.025 0.126 ± 0.021
  1. Mean frequency of occurrence (F%) and percentage of hare stomachs containing a certain plant taxa (n%) in the dry and wet seasons. Diversity and food niche breadth indices were calculated according to the mean frequencies of occurrence. Hurlbert’s niche breadth (B΄) was applied only to herbs.
  2. aB΄ was not calculated for the pooled data, due to the difference of availability of herb species between the two seasons.