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Table 3 Pearson correlation coefficient between butterfly index and land use category within the range of 3 km from study route of five study sites

From: Diversity and density of butterfly communities in urban green areas: an analytical approach using GIS

Community index Paddy Field Park and green space Forest Urban area Road River and pond
Species richness       
All species 0.98** 0.98** 0.02 0.98** −0.97** −0.97** −0.45
Habitat type        
Forest interior species 0.99** 0.99** 0.07 0.99** −0.99** −0.93* −0.37
Forest edge species 0.72 0.72 −0.43 0.72 −0.69 −0.79 −0.51
Grassland species −0.79 −0.79 0.40 −0.74 0.75 0.65 0.25
Niche breadth       
Specialist species 1.00*** 1.00*** 0.17 1.00*** −1.00*** −0.96* −0.42
Intermediate species 0.97** 0.97** 0.02 0.97** −0.96* −0.97** −0.57
Generalist species −0.15 −0.14 −0.66 −0.14 0.17 −0.03 0.02
Density        
All species 0.42 0.43 −0.32 0.47 −0.40 −0.61 −0.76
Habitat type        
Forest interior species 1.00*** 1.00*** 0.14 0.99** −1.00*** −0.95* −0.41
Forest edge species −0.18 −0.17 −0.97** −0.21 0.24 0.17 −0.28
Grassland species −0.56 −0.56 −0.14 −0.50 0.56 0.31 −0.27
Niche breadth       
Specialist species 1.00*** 1.00*** 0.13 0.99** −0.99** −0.95* −0.41
Intermediate species −0.39 −0.39 −0.13 −0.32 0.39 0.12 −0.36
Generalist species −0.66 −0.66 −0.71 −0.66 0.70 0.57 −0.18
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.