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Table 1 Butterflies observed at five study sites

From: Diversity and density of butterfly communities in urban green areas: an analytical approach using GIS

Species NS EW BD HF GF Total % Habitat type Niche breadth
Parnassius stubbendorfii      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 GL S
Luehdorfia puziloi      0.5 (12) 0.09 (12) 0.9 FI S
Papilio xuthus 0.13 (4) 0.33 (8) 0.21 (5) 0.03 (1)   0.14 (18) 1.4 GL G
Papilio macilentus     0.07 (2)   0.02 (2) 0.2 FE G
Papilio bianor 0.13 (4) 0.04 (1)   0.07 (2) 0.13 (3) 0.08 (10) 0.8 FI G
Papilio maackii      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI G
Pieris melete 0.23 (7) 1.04 (25) 0.21 (5) 0.57 (17) 0.88 (21) 0.57 (75) 5.9 FE G
Pieris canidia 1.90 (57)   1.17 (28) 3.10 (93) 0.25 (6) 1.39 (184) 14.4 FE G
Pieris rapae 0.83 (25) 0.38 (9) 2.00 (48) 2.20 (66)   1.12 (148) 11.6 GL G
Anthocharis scolymus 0.17 (5)   0.21 (5) 0.53 (16) 0.08 (2) 0.21 (28) 2.2 FE I
Colias erate 0.10 (3) 0.21 (5) 0.38 (9)    0.13 (17) 1.3 GL G
Spindasis takanonis   0.04 (1)     0.01 (1) 0.1 FE S
Coreana raphaelis      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Japonica lutea      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Antigius butleri      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Wagimo signatus      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Favonius orientalis 0.13 (4)    0.10 (3)   0.05 (7) 0.5 FI S
Favonius taxila      0.13 (3) 0.02 (3) 0.2 FI S
Satyrium prunoides   0.04 (1)     0.01 (1) 0.1 FE S
Callophrys ferreus 0.03 (1)    0.03 (1)   0.02 (2) 0.2 FE I
Rapala caerulea 0.03 (1)   0.13 (3) 0.17 (5)   0.07 (9) 0.7 FE G
Lycaena dispar   0.04 (1)     0.01 (1) 0.1 GL I
Lycaena phlaeas   0.08 (2)     0.02 (2) 0.2 GL I
Zizeeria maha 0.90 (27) 0.67 (16) 7.38 (177) 2.70 (81)   2.28 (301) 23.5 GL I
Cupido argiades   0.46 (11) 0.04 (1) 0.07 (2)   0.11 (14) 1.1 GL G
Tongeia fischeri 0.03 (1)   0.25 (6) 0.20 (6) 0.04 (1) 0.11 (14) 1.1 GL G
Celastrina argiolus 0.23 (7)   1.08 (26) 0.83 (25) 0.08 (2) 0.45 (60) 4.7 FE G
Libythea lepita 0.07 (2)   0.04 (1) 0.20 (6) 5.17 (124) 1.01 (133) 10.4 FI S
Parantica sita      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FE G
Mycalesis francisca      0.25 (6) 0.05 (6) 0.5 FE G
Mycalesis gotama      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FE G
Minois dryas    0.17 (4)    0.03 (4) 0.3 GL I
Argynnis paphia      0.33 (8) 0.06 (8) 0.6 FE S
Argynnis laodice   0.04 (1)    0.04 (1) 0.02 (2) 0.2 GL S
Argynnis ruslana 0.27 (8)   0.17 (4) 0.27 (8) 0.46 (11) 0.23 (31) 2.4 GL S
Neptis sappho    0.04 (1)   0.08 (2) 0.02 (3) 0.2 FE G
Neptis philyra      0.25 (6) 0.05 (6) 0.5 FI I
Neptis philyroides      0.17 (4) 0.03 (4) 0.3 FI I
Neptis speyeri      0.21 (5) 0.04 (5) 0.4 FI S
Neptis alwina      0.08 (2) 0.02 (2) 0.2 FE I
Neptis thisbe      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Neptis ilos      0.13 (3) 0.02 (3) 0.2 FI S
Chitoria ulupi      0.88 (21) 0.16 (21) 1.6 FI S
Dilipa fenestra      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Hestina assimilis      0.21 (5) 0.04 (5) 0.4 FI I
Sasakia charonda      1.92 (46) 0.35 (46) 3.6 FI S
Sephisa princeps      0.08 (2) 0.02 (2) 0.2 FI I
Vanessa cardui   0.58 (14) 0.17 (4)    0.14 (18) 1.4 GL G
Vanessa indica 0.10 (3) 0.13 (3)     0.05 (6) 0.5 GL G
Polygonia c-aureum 0.03 (1) 1.00 (24) 0.17 (4) 0.03 (1) 0.04 (1) 0.23 (31) 2.4 GL I
Burara aquilina      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI I
Lobocla bifasciata     0.03 (1)   0.01 (1) 0.1 FE I
Satarupa nymphalis      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 FI S
Daimio tethys    0.13 (3)    0.02 (3) 0.2 FE I
Erynnis montanus    0.04 (1)   0.25 (6) 0.05 (7) 0.5 FE S
Thymelicus leoninus      0.04 (1) 0.01 (1) 0.1 GL I
Parnara guttata 0.03 (1)   0.29 (7) 0.13 (4)   0.09 (12) 0.9 GL G
Species richness 18 15 20 19 38 57    
Density 5.37 (161) 5.08 (122) 14.25 (342) 11.33 (340) 13.17 (316) 9.70 (1281)    
  1. Density indicate abundance per 1 km transect. The numbers in parentheses indicate abundance. See text for classification methods of habitat type and niche breadth. Study sites, NS: Namsan Park, EW: Ewha Womans University, BD: Bukseoul Dream Forest, HF: Hongneung Forest, GF: Gwangneung Forest. Habitat type, GL: grassland species, FE: forest edge species, FI: forest interior species. Niche breadth, S: specialist species, I: intermediate species, G: generalist species.