Current Italian distribution of the common frog and the location of the palaeontological sites. Current Italian distribution of the common frog, Rana temporaria (modified from Sindaco et al. ) and location of the palaeontological sites that yielded fossils of this taxon. Note that the Grotta di Equi opens on the slopes of a Tuscan massif, the Apuan Alps, where now the common frog is extinct and that the elevation of the cave is about 300 m lower than the current lower range of the common frog in Tuscany. Italian Pleistocene localities with ascertained presence of the common frog: 1) Grotta di Equi (MS); 2) Grotta della Volpe, Val D’Avesa (VR) + Grotta di Veja (A), S. Anna d’Alfaedo (VR) + Grotta della Fata Nana, Bosco Chiesanuova (VR) + Valdiporro, Bosco Chiesanuova (VR) + Cengelle 1, Monte Tondo, Soave (VR); 3) Grotta Generosa, San Fedele d’Intelvi (CO).