FISH analysis of satellite VI in Formosan muntjac, Sambar deer, Formosan sika deer, and Asian red deer. The biotinylated satVI-1C5 probe was hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of the tested deer species and the FISH signal was detected by AF568 conjugated avidin (red fluorescence). The metaphase chromosomes were counterstained with DAPI (blue fluorescence). (a) The metaphase of Formosan muntjac shows the chromosomal location of satellite VI. Chromosomes 2, 3, 18, 19, and Y lack a centromeric FISH signal. Asterisks (*) indicate the interstitial FISH signal on each chromosome 3. An arrow indicates the one chromosome 4 that lacks a satellite VI FISH signal. Both chromosomes 4 were identified by a digoxigenin-labeled IM04-526B9 Indian muntjac BAC DNA (green signals) which maps to 1q25 of the Indian muntjac equivalent to chromosome 4 of the Chinese muntjac (Fronicke et al. ; Lin et al. ; Murmann et al. ). The metaphase spreads of the (b) Formosan Sambar deer, (c) Asian red deer, and (d) Formosan sika deer show the chromosome location of satellite VI. Arrows indicate metacentric autosomes of the respective species in panels (b,c,d). Arrowheads indicate the chromosomes with the strongest FISH signals of satellite VI in panels (b,d). The digoxigenin-labeled probe IM04-50A1 (green signal in the panels (b,c)) and IM04-121A1 (green signal in the panel (d)) was used for identifying the X chromosome of the respective species.