Comparison of male and female food provisioning, female fly-outs, and time spent outside the nest. Comparison of (A) male and (B) female food provisioning (number of prey items delivered to the young), (C) number of female fly-outs from the nest, and (D) time spent outside the nest by the female during the brooding period in successful (indicated by the letter S, n = 8) and unsuccessful (indicated by the letter U, n = 4) nests. Values are the mean/night ± SE or SD. Statistical comparisons were made using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a Poisson distribution of response variables. *p = 0.01 to 0.03, ***p < 0.0001.